Here are the reasons why the Quran does not support the actions of groups who perpetrated or initiated war and violence on other religious communities either to enforce the Islamic religion or to abolish other beliefs in their own land or in foreign lands. War and the use of force had its own justification in the Quran but the basic believe that there is no compulsion in religion and belief is supreme fundamental principle and must be uphold as the basic tenet in the religion of Islam.
We are only allowed to defend against those who fight us
>>>>>Surah 2:190-193 Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah love not transgressors. And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have turn you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith. But if they cease, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah. But if they cease, let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression
We fight because we are being oppressed
>>>>>Surah 4:74-75 Let those fight in the cause of Allah Who sell the life of this world for the hereafter. To him who fights in the cause of Allah, whether he is slain or gets victory – soon shall We give him a reward of great (value). And why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)? Men, women, and children, whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from Thee one who will protect; and raise for us from Thee one who will help!”
Fighting is permitted to uphold our freedom of belief
>>>>>Surah 8:36-40 The Unbelievers spend their wealth to hinder (man) from the path of Allah, and so will they continue to spend; but in the end they will have (only) regrets and sighs; at length they will be overcome: and the Unbelievers will be gathered together to Hell; In order that Allah may separate the impure from the pure, put the impure, one on another, heap them together, and cast them into Hell. They will be the ones to have lost. Say to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from hindering men from the path of Allah), their past would be forgiven them; but if they persist, the punishment of those before them is already (a matter of warning for them). And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah altogether and everywhere; but if they cease, verily Allah doth see all that they do. If they refuse, be sure that Allah is your Protector – the best to protect and the best to help.
Permission to repulse those who broke mutual agreement and covenant
>>>>>Surah 9:7-14 How can there be a league, before Allah and His Messenger, with the Pagans, except those with whom ye made a treaty near the sacred Mosque? As long as these stand true to you, stand ye true to them: for Allah doth love the righteous. How (can there be such a league), seeing that if they get an advantage over you, they respect not in you the ties either of kinship or of covenant? With (fair words from) their mouths they entice you, but their hearts are averse from you; and most of them are rebellious and wicked. The Signs of Allah have they sold for a miserable price and (many) have they hindered from His way: evil indeed are the deeds they have done. In a Believer they respect not the ties either of kinship or of covenant! It is they who have transgressed all bounds. But (even so), if they repent, establish regular prayers, and practice regular charity, they are your brethren in Faith: (thus) do We explain the Signs in detail, for those who understand. But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and taunt you for your Faith, fight ye the chiefs of Unfaith: for their oaths are nothing to them: that thus they may be restrained. Will ye not fight people who violated their oaths, plotted to expel the Messenger, and took the aggressive by being the first (to assault) you? Do ye fear them? Nay, it is Allah Whom ye should more justly fear, if ye believe! Fight them, and Allah will punish them by your hands, cover them with shame, help you (to victory) over them, heal the breasts of Believers,
Fighting is prohibited during the Sacred months unless being attacked
>>>>>Surah 9:36 According to the Book of God, from the day He created the heavens and the earth, the number of months are twelve, four of which are sacred. (This is part of the law) of the religion. Do not commit injustice against your souls during the sacred months but fight all the pagans just as they fight against all of you. Know that God is with the pious ones.
Being expelled from own home due to persecution
>>>>>Surah 16:110 But verily thy Lord, to those who leave their homes after trials and persecutions, and who thereafter strive and fight for the faith and patiently persevere, Thy Lord, after all this is oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
When being encircled and deprived of basic daily needs
>>>>>Surah 9:123 O ye who believe! Fight the unbelievers who gird you about, and let them find firmness in you: and know that Allah is with those who fear Him.
Being wrong and expelled from their homes
>>>>>Surah 22:39-40 To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid; (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right, (for no cause) except that they say, “our Lord is Allah. Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause); for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will).
Defend themselves after unjustly attacked
>>>>>Surah 26:227 Except those who believe, work righteousness, engage much in the remembrance of Allah, and defend themselves only after they are unjustly attacked. And soon will the unjust assailants know what vicissitudes their affairs will take!
Against those who transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice
>>>>>Surah 42:39-43 And those who, when an oppressive wrong is inflicted on them, (are not cowed but) help and defend themselves. The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah. For (Allah) love not those who do wrong. But indeed if any do help and defend themselves after a wrong (done) to them, against such there is no cause of blame. The blame is only against those who oppress men and wrong-doing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice: for such there will be a penalty grievous. But indeed if any show patience and forgive, that would truly be an exercise of courageous will and resolution in the conduct of affairs.
Fight those who support others to expel you out of your home
>>>>>Surah 60:7-9 It may be that Allah will grant love (and friendship) between you and those whom ye (now) hold as enemies. For Allah has power (over all things); And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loves those who are just. Allah only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It is such as turn to them (in these circumstances), that do wrong.
Finally there is a misconception which says there is compulsion in belief at Surah 9:29 Fight those who believe not in Allah or the Last Day, or hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, or acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya (tax) with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. This verse is not to compel others to believe
In the religion of Islam but a compulsion to pay the income tax of the land which is enforceable to all communities whether they were of the pagan, the People of the Book or the Muslims themselves. The taxable rate (zakat for Muslims and Jizyah for non-Muslims) is twenty percent of income as stated in Surah 8:41 And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire, a fifth share is assigned to Allah, and to the Messenger, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer, if ye do believe in Allah and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Testing, the Day of the meeting of the two forces. For Allah hath power over all things.
Thus apart from to wage war on those whoever refused to contribute a percentage of their income for the treasury, fighting is only permitted in defensive of being oppressed or expelled for having belief in the path of Allah. Fighting is for the freedom of belief as the basic principle in the Quran is to uphold freedom of religion as stated in Surah 2:256 Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah hears and knows all things. And there is no punishment in this world whatever one is to believe as is stated in Surah 4:115 If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men of Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge!